Recycling and metallurgy
Sweden has a very efficient system for collecting and recycling certain metals, e.g. iron and copper, while there is a complete lack of recycling of some critical metals which are found in for instance electronic waste.
Some of the scrap metal is utilised in the processes used to extract metal from ore, and waste from one process may be used in another process to extract metals from the waste.
More metals from ore and scrap
A challenge for the future is to increase the yield of the metals which are already recovered. Another challenge is to recover additional elements contained in the material streams that are not extracted today but instead lost in by-products or waste streams.
There are also large, known mineral deposits which cannot be turned into ores because there are no good mineral processing methods to extract the metals present.
Improved processes aimed at extracting more metals from complex ores, reclaimed material and waste will contribute to improved resource efficiency and decrease the current import dependence of some metals.